- What is permaculture?
- The founders of permaculture
- Basic principles of permaculture
Farmers and private landowners are always trying to optimize the space and organize a self-sufficient economy. Permaculture is natural agriculture, which means respect for the environment.
The basis of this philosophy is the adequate allocation of resources, the right combination of plantings, a verified sequence of flowering and harvesting. When sowing, lighting, wind, humidity levels and other climatic characteristics are taken into account. Complying with all the rules allows you to create from the beginning the most efficient agricultural system, even in 6 acres.
What is permaculture?
Permaculture is the streamlining of site space. Ecological design allows you to create efficient farms with a careful attitude to resources and minimal damage to nature.
Permaculture in the garden involves the production of non-waste products. For example, fallen leaves or pruned branches can be recycled into a compost pit and made into compost. From the trunk of a sawn tree, you can make a small fence for a flower bed, ground floor, organize a comfortable recreation area and much more.
The founders of permaculture
Permaculture is a branch of organic farming developed in Australia by scientists Bill Mollison and David Holmgren. At the same time, similar principles have been introduced in other countries. Thus the Austrian Sepp Holzer successfully cultivated 50 hectares of land. It was a real challenge, given the volatile weather in the mountains.
The first fan of permaculture in Russia was Nikolai Kurdyumov, an excellent agronomist and author of numerous books on gardening. The scientist argued that a closed ecosystem takes care of itself and requires minimal human intervention. The main thing is to properly distribute the plantings and choose the most suitable places for them.
Basic principles of permaculture
How to start learning permaculture? In the USSR, in agriculture, the concept of Sepp Holzer was formally adopted as the basis, which was based on the integration and interaction of all ecosystems in the region without suppressing the natural landscape and the natural habitat of plants. Based on this philosophy, the basic principles were developed, which are still actively used on private farms and large farms.
Surveillance and interaction
A permaculture garden gives maximum efficiency if all the features of the system are taken into account and the right connections are made between them. Thanks to synergy and symbiosis, plants solve their problems independently, successfully suppress harmful weeds and are protected from pests without human intervention.
Receiving and storing energy
Gardeners must take into account the location of the house on the site and accurately identify the shady and sunny sides. This is necessary for the proper distribution of plantings. If a green likes to grow in the sun, then for other plants, hard light will become a clear obstacle to full growth. In cold climates, installing reflective greenhouses on the south side of the house is especially important, in addition to the early shoots, you have extra heating in the house.
According to the permaculture strategy, 1/3 of the crop goes to food. In this case, the plants can be combined in such a way that they themselves attract pollinators at different times. Proper planting order and land distribution is the key to a long-term harvest throughout the season.
Use of renewable resources
To preserve the natural habitat of flora and fauna, experts strongly recommend the use of only environmentally friendly materials for the construction of houses and ancillary buildings. As for the plants, those species whose seeds can be used next year are preferred. It also saves a lot of money on a budget.
Zero waste production
All waste can be reused wisely. This also includes waste products. Biological treatment plants serve as a standard instead of conventional septic tanks. The result of the operation of the systems is the formation of industrial irrigation water and biologically active mud, which is used as fertilizer.
Design “from templates to details”
Ecostyle is present not only in the landscape design of the garden, but is also introduced in the general sense of the location of the buildings on the site. It is possible to refine the area as efficiently as possible, taking into account factors such as:
- groundwater level,
- metallic source composition,
- soil type,
- soil acidity,
- the location of the site in relation to the main points and much more.
Merger instead of separation
Concern about the diversity of flora and fauna gives excellent results. Many novice gardeners draw the line between garden and vegetable garden, and some even make concrete flower beds. This contradicts the concept of permaculture. Connoisseurs of this field know that plants and insects interact with each other, this quality can be used for the benefit of cultivation. For example, a great solution would be to plant meadows next to fruit trees that attract pollinators. Potatoes grow best in combination with eggplant and the quality of onions will be much higher if planted with tomatoes.
Do not put all your eggs in one basket
The health of an ecosystem depends directly on the diversity of crops. The combination of renewable energy sources, alternative natural recycling methods and a well-designed habitat for coexistence create a pest-resistant and healthy environment.
Respond creatively to change
In permaculture, the individual is not the deciding factor. It only helps to form the necessary ecosystem, but it does not fight it. Seek benefits where they do not exist at first glance. Is moss growing in abandoned shady areas? Do not rush to destroy it, because you can advantageously defeat the plan and create an attractive recreation area. In addition, a wide variety of plants favorably affects soil fertility.
Use hand tools and organics
Everyone is aware of the harmful effects of technology on the environment. Chainsaws, lawn mowers and petroleum-powered tractors emit toxic substances into the atmosphere. And as we know, heavy metals accumulate in the root systems and soil parts of plants. Production becomes non-ecological, it becomes harmful to eat such fruits and vegetables. You can avoid such problems with the help of a hand tool. Do not be too lazy to plant plants with fungicides and antibacterial properties in the area, this will protect the garden and the garden from the appearance of fungus and other fruit infections.
I hope that in this short article we will be able to introduce you to the basics of permaculture, which is based on a thoughtful attitude towards nature, careful planning and taking into account all the factors that affect the quality of the ecosystem. The synthesis of technologies, respect for nature and the proper allocation of resources significantly increase productivity and quality of life in general.