everything about sports and proper nutrition for adults and children – Capital C

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The research company “Romir” in the framework of the program “Healthy Eating” presented the results of a large-scale study on the diet of Russians. It turned out that the issue of proper nutrition during the pandemic has become particularly important. Healthy eating has ceased to be just a fad, it has become a natural human need.

For the first time in Russia, the concepts of “healthy eating”, “food quality” and “hot meals”, as well as the principles of healthy eating, are enshrined in law. The new version of the federal law “On the quality and safety of food products” updated the conceptual device, clarified the issues of control and supervision, marking with identification marks and proposed rules aimed at dealing with the circulation of counterfeit food products.

The real diet of the people is evaluated, as well as the access of the Russians to domestic food products that help to eliminate the deficiencies of micro- and macronutrients.
Representatives of “Romir” note that in order to obtain more accurate indicators and the opportunity to see the opinion in dynamics, the study was conducted in two stages. The sample was representative of the population of the country. The study involved men and women aged 18 to 65 years from 220 cities with a population of 10,000 and over.

It was possible to find that 78% of the respondents have a positive attitude towards a healthy lifestyle, of which 30% have changed their attitude towards a healthy diet in a positive direction in the last two years and 48% have a positive attitude towards a healthy one. diet for a long time. According to the respondents, the main component of a healthy lifestyle is a healthy diet.

The experts also noted the importance of working with children and young people. Earlier, according to the results of a selective survey of students conducted by Rospotrebnadzor, it was found that overweight was found in 18% of students, obesity – in 8%, and in some areas overweight children in grades 1-4 exceed 30 %. In order to be able to correct the diets and develop recommendations, Rospotrebnadzor continues to conduct a large-scale study on student nutrition. In 2021, it took place in 49 regions of the Russian Federation.

Ekaterina Pyrieva, head of the nutrition laboratory for age at the Institute of Nutrition and Biotechnology, talked about how to instill healthy eating habits in children. “There are many important principles to follow when planning a child’s diet,” he explained. – The child’s diet should contribute to the formation of proper eating behavior. This is useful at any age, but the effectiveness is highest in the very first years of development, when a person is more flexible and receptive. The amount of energy that food gives us must correspond to the expenditure of the body. The child’s diet should be varied. After a year, all food groups should be in the diet. except that mushrooms can be excluded until the age of three or even before school. It is important to follow a healthy diet. The child must understand that there are basic and additional meals. Breakfast should be served within two hours of waking up, dinner – two hours before bedtime. It happens that the child refuses to eat at night, but then runs all night in the fridge and the next morning finds it difficult to wake up. This means that his whole regime has been overthrown, which is very detrimental to his emotional development. In this case, it is necessary to gradually correct the situation: turn off all gadgets at night, have explanatory conversations with the child and, of course, be sure to include common meals. He may not even be eating right now, but he should be at the table when the whole family is eating. This is a very important moment, which helps to form good eating habits and, consequently, to reduce the risk of obesity, which has become a global problem almost all over the world. Interestingly, in some countries – France, Denmark, Belgium – the situation is more stable, and there is even a reduction in the number of overweight children. These are the only countries where a traditional, family diet has been developed.

According to Pyrieva, when planning a baby diet, it is important to keep in mind that there are foods that need to be on the table every day. These are meat, fish or poultry, dairy products, pasta, cereals or bread. Cheese and cottage cheese can be given several times a week.

“Of course, it often happens that a child is selective in food,” the doctor agreed. – For example, the spirit does not tolerate fish. It is worth emphasizing immediately: all eating habits are established very early – from the first year of life, even in the stage of breastfeeding. And many parents immediately go the wrong way: after a year, when the whims of “I want or I do not want” begin in the child, they generally stop giving him an unwanted product. This is not worth doing. It is impossible to force-feed the baby, to reprimand, but you can try to offer him an unpopular product in different forms, combined with what he eats with pleasure. The same fish, for example, can be cooked in the form of a cutlet or stew, in combination with your favorite product, using a sauce – of course, not greasy, not spicy. Also, if your child does not really like fish, do not give it to him three times a week, as nutritionists advise. You can cut it down at once and let the whole family eat the dish that day – so the baby will see an example. As for harmful products, especially baking soda, fast food, you do not need to ban them completely, as this will cause reactions. You just have to explain that this is not everyday food. Then, if the rest of the diet is properly formulated, there will be no serious harm. And under no circumstances should you keep such products at home.

The expert reminds that in the morning the child can be given yogurt, preferably with some kind of cereal product, porridge with cheese sandwiches, egg dishes supplemented with vegetables, cottage cheese. Sometimes you can cook muesli. If the child does not eat well in the morning, you can reduce the portion – especially if he is expecting a rich breakfast at school.

The state provides free hot meals for younger students so you can not give anything to your child with you. This is even better, because otherwise the child eats what his parents gave him and no longer touches the school breakfast. Exceptions can be made for fruit or fruit juices. For example, in Finland, which is considered one of the most advanced countries in the field of school meals, it is generally forbidden to give food to a child.

“If we are talking about an older child who had a rich breakfast at home and only lunch at school, he must, of course, organize a snack,” he added. – Experts recommend dairy and sour milk, preferably without fruit fillers, but with the addition of cereal ingredients, crackers, cookies, bread or cereal bars and fruit … A preschooler should receive 600-800 ml of liquid, including tea. Milk does not count. School children – 1-1.2 liters. This includes what you drink during the day with meals, plus two to three cups of clean water a day. If the child is involved in sports, water should be given after training. If the child is healthy, then you should not completely exclude sweets from the diet. Studies have shown that this does not lead to anything good. It’s all about the measure and quality of the product. If, after a well-organized meal, for example, an afternoon snack or a second breakfast, there is some kind of sweet dish, it does not matter. If the family does not form a healthy, proper diet and sweets constantly act as snacks, this is already a problem – there is an excess of sugar and fat … If the child is actively involved in sports, he should eat heartily two to three hours before training. And in about an hour, you can offer him a snack that contains carbohydrates, such as a sweet fruit drink, a bun. At the same time, it is best not to feed one full meal at a time.

Pyreva also talked about the signs of an eating disorder. According to her, in this case, the child begins to eat separately from the family, is interested in the caloric content of food, chooses low-calorie foods, often weighs himself and closes in the bathroom after eating. “These are all alarms and a reason to consult a nutritionist,” the doctor warned. – If anorexia nervosa is suspected, then, of course, you should go to a psychologist, then – if necessary – a psychiatrist and a nutritionist should be involved. The sooner parents seek professional help, the better.

Also, according to international researchers, it is important to remember that proper nutrition only works in conjunction with physical activity. Lack of physical activity can be fatal. According to the WHO, 6% of deaths in the world are caused by diseases that come from a sedentary lifestyle. Physical inactivity causes 21-25% of breast and colon cancers, 27% of diabetes and 30% of coronary heart disease.

The employees of Rospotrebnadzor are sure that the physical exercises give a more balanced and targeted load to the muscles. Regular physical activity helps reduce the risk of hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, breast and colon cancer, depression, strengthens bones and normalizes body function, burns enough calories and maintains a normal weight.
The WHO has developed rules for the minimum duration of physical activity:
Infants under one year – 30 minutes a day with interactive toys, lying on the stomach while awake.

Children 1-2 years – 180 minutes a day of varied physical activity of any intensity, including active games.

Children 3-4 years – 180 minutes a day of varied physical activity of any intensity, including at least 60 minutes of dynamic play.

Children and adolescents 5-17 years – 60 minutes a day of moderate or vigorous physical activity, including aerobics, at least three times a week, should be active physical activity to strengthen muscles and bones.

Adults 18-64 years: 150 minutes per week of moderate aerobic activity and / or 75 minutes of intense activity, each session lasting 10 minutes or more, muscle strengthening exercises two days a week are recommended.
Adults 65 and older — do balance exercises at least three days a week.
The recommendations are suitable for all people, including those with chronic diseases not related to mobility. Additional precautions and medical advice may be needed for pregnant women and women in the postpartum period, people with cardiovascular disease.

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