11 Apr. 2022, 13:05
BIRD FLU is an acute infectious, particularly dangerous disease transmitted to humans by animals, the causative agent of which is a type A virus.
All bird species are susceptible to influenza, including chickens, turkeys, ducks, pheasants, guinea fowl, quail, birds, storks, gulls and almost all other types of fellow humans (pigeons, sparrows, gulls, ducks, jackals, etc.), wild, exotic and ornamental birds, as well as pigs, horses, ferrets, mice, cats, dogs, other vertebrates and humans.
Avian flu does not cause mass illness in wild birds and is asymptomatic, but in domestic birds it can cause serious illness and death. This disease is characterized by a potentially high risk of the pathogen to humans.
Sources viruses flu birds in nature.
The main source of the virus in nature is waterfowl, which carry the virus in their intestines and channel it into the environment through saliva and feces. In wild ducks, the influenza virus multiplies mainly in the cells of the gastrointestinal tract, while the virus does not cause visible signs of disease in the birds themselves and is released into the environment in high concentrations. Asymptomatic influenza in ducks and birds can be the result of adaptation to a given host for several hundred years. Thus, a reservoir is created that provides biological “immortality” to influenza viruses.
Ways infections flu birds.
Infection of humans and poultry occurs through close contact with infected and dead wild or poultry. In some cases, human infection is possible when eating meat and eggs of sick birds without adequate heat treatment.
The secretions of infected birds, which enter plants, air, water, can infect humans and healthy birds through water when they drink and bathe, as well as through airborne droplets, airborne dust and dirty hands.
Sustainability viruses flu birds to natural and chemical substance influences.
1. Turns off (dies) at plus 56 ° C for 3 hours, at plus 60 ° C for
2. Inactive in acidic environment.
3. Deactivated by oxidants, lipid solvents.
4. Inactivated by formalin and iodine-containing preparations.
5. The avian influenza virus, unlike the human, is very stable in the external environment – it can live in the corpses of dead birds for up to a year. 6. Long-term storage in tissues, feces and water.
Symptoms flu birds in the household birds.
Infection in poultry can be asymptomatic or cause reduced egg production and respiratory disease, as well as a thunderous form, causing the bird to die rapidly from systemic infection without preliminary symptoms (highly pathogenic avian influenza). In sick wild and domestic birds, unusual behavior, disorientation of movements, lack of response to external stimuli and depression are observed. There is swelling and tanning of the crown and cyanosis of the earrings, swelling of the subcutaneous retina head and neck and the death of the bird within 2472 hours.
Symptoms illnesses flu birds in the Human.
From infection to the first signs of the disease can last from several hours to 5 days. Avian influenza begins with chills, fever up to 38 ° C and above, muscle aches and headaches, sore throat. Possible watery loose stools, recurrent vomiting. After 2-3 days there is shortness of breath, wet cough, often with mixing of blood. Such a virus is dangerous as it can very quickly lead to pneumonia, and in addition, it can cause serious complications to the heart and kidneys and affect the brain.
Prevention flu birds in the Home birds.
Prevention is carried out by poultry owners in a comprehensive manner, including organizational and financial measures:
- Observance by the owners and / or persons who care for, maintain, breed and sell poultry, sanitary and sanitary, veterinary and sanitary rules and regulations. In particular, it is necessary:
- Informing the state veterinary service of the region about the presence of poultry on personal auxiliary plots in order to take the necessary precautionary measures for the existing livestock.
- Do not allow poultry to walk (exit) outside the yard, exclude poultry from contact with wild birds, especially waterfowl.
- To buy and sell domestic and ornamental poultry in authorized trade places only if there are accompanying veterinary documents.
- Keep fully clean areas and buildings for the conservation of animals and birds, thoroughly clean and disinfect all areas and areas: periodically (2-3 times a week) treat the pre-cleaned areas and equipment (shovels, brooms, bathtubs) with 3% hot caustic soda solution or 3% bleach solution (chloramine). After disinfecting the poultry house, the perch and nests should be whitened twice (for one hour) with freshly dried lime.
- Make sure windows and doors are locked, which eliminates the possibility of wild and human birds entering the feed storage and bird watching facilities.
- Store poultry and ornamental poultry feed in hermetically sealed containers away from wild birds. Food leftovers must be boiled before feeding.
- Poultry intended for sale on the market must be slaughtered in specialized establishments.
IN THE period threats flu birds:
- In order to prevent the infection of birds with influenza in individual households of citizens, it is necessary to transfer all poultry to closed storage.
- Install scarecrows, rattles and other means to scare wild birds on farms.
- At the moment, it is not recommended to buy live birds and replenish the bird population.
- It is necessary to take care of the bird, to clean the premises and the area in the work clothes available for it (robe, apron, gloves, rubber shoes). Do not drink, eat or smoke while cleaning.
- Periodically (2-3 times a week) disinfect previously cleaned rooms and equipment (scoops, brooms, bathtubs) with a warm 3% caustic soda solution or 3% bleach solution (chloramine).
- After disinfecting the poultry house, the perch and nests should be whitened twice (for one hour) with freshly dried lime.
- All work clothes should be disinfected (soaking in 3% chloramine B solution for 30 minutes, boiling in 2% sodium carbonate solution) and then washing.
- If a dead bird is found or a sick bird is found on the street, in private households of citizens, it is necessary to immediately inform the state veterinary service of the region where the bird was found or kept, in order to take the necessary measures to examine the bird for flu.
Prevention flu birds in the of the people:
To prevent avian influenza in humans, it is necessary:
1. Follow personal hygiene rules, including not storing purchased raw poultry and eggs with non-cooked products (bread, cheese, sausages, pastries, etc.).
2. Avoid contact with suspicious or dead birds.
- For the care of poultry with work clothes available for it (robe, apron, gloves, rubber shoes). During the period of contact with the bird (feeding, cleaning, etc.), you should not drink, eat, smoke.
- Only procure poultry meat and eggs for food at authorized trade venues if veterinary accompanying veterinary documents are available.
- Eat poultry meat and eggs after heat treatment: cook the egg for at least 10 minutes, the meat – at least 30 minutes at 100 ° C. 6. Avoid contact with waterfowl and fellow birds (pigeons, sparrows, crows, gulls, ducks, shoemakers, etc.).