Leningradka and its past
In the 15th-17th century, a major trade route from Moscow to another major city, Tver, was formed on this site. The Muscovites called it that – Tverskaya street. At the same time, a Moscow proverb appeared: “The city of Tver is the door to Moscow.” Immediately after the birth of a new city on the Neva and the transfer of the capital of the Russian Empire to St. Petersburg, Tverskaya Street became the main government highway and highway connecting the two capitals.
The name was changed from a St. Petersburg street to a St. Petersburg highway (here, for example, they built the famous Bolshevik factory, which we talked about earlier). With the renaming of St. Petersburg to Leningrad, the name of the highway was changed and it remains the same today.
The main sights of Leningradka
The restaurant “Yar” is one of the most famous restaurants in Moscow
In 1836, the Yar restaurant opened in Moscow near the Petrovsky Travel Palace. Where does such a strange name come from? It was named after the French owner – Trankil Yar. This name was used by many restaurants in Moscow in the 19th-20th century.
Restaurant building in the early 20th century
The restaurant building has been rebuilt several times, but more often in the photos one can see this appearance: a 1910 Art Nouveau building by architect Adolf Erichson. The building has large multi-faceted turrets, with large lamps on the façade (they said that their way was guided by the brightly lit Yar) and large arched windows at the height of the whole building.
Inside the restaurant, small and large halls, separate offices (common practice in such expensive pre-revolutionary restaurants) and an imperial box were equipped.
Then there was a popular poem by an unknown author:
“What’s sad ρε Take the guitar
Sing a song about love
Or better yet go to “Yar”
Do you warm the blood with champagne?
Hello, carriage, drive to Yar!
Ah, horses, brother, do not be sad!
You used a triple – not a pair,
So take it, brother, hurry!
Pay attention to this unusual greeting card, made in the Moscow of the Future series by the Einem confectionery factory (now the Red October factory).
We see people in winter electric sleds rushing down the highway passing by a pre-revolutionary 1910 version of the Yar. Today we know that the historic Yar restaurant operates in Moscow. But, unfortunately, we will not find such a building in the capital. How come? It turns out that in 1952 the historic building of Yar, built in the early 20th century, was built on the building of the Sovetskaya Hotel.
Sovetskaya Hotel and Romen Theater
In 1952, by order of Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin, the Sovetskaya Hotel was built in the Stalinist neoclassical style on the site of the restaurant that closed after the revolution. The architects were Pavel Shteller and Iosif Loveiko, who later received the Stalin Prize for this work.
The main area of the main building is occupied by rooms, many of which were created according to individual projects. The interior of the hotel is decorated with expensive materials. Stalin’s son, Vassily, stayed in this hotel in room 301. Now this room is called “Stalin’s” and it is very difficult to book because of its popularity.
Since the Yar was one of the most popular restaurants in Moscow in the late 19th century, many concerts took place in the restaurant itself. It is believed that “Yar” was the center of gypsy culture. The former large hall of the restaurant became the hall of the theater. In 1969, the only gypsy theater in the world “Romen” was located in the theater and concert building of the Sovetskaya Hotel. This is the first complete stage of the theatrical group.
Stage of the Romen Theater
In 2005 a complete restoration of the theater building took place: the facade was repaired, the original oak doors were restored and modern sound and lighting equipment was installed. In the amphitheater itself, you can see details of Stalinist neoclassicism, unusual pots on the walls, reminiscent of somewhat icy fountains. The windows on the side of the stage are interesting, which remind us of the windows of the Yar restaurant built in 1910.
Romen theater hall
Let’s go through the underpass under Leningradsky Avenue and see the house, which always attracts attention with its peculiar decoration.
The architect of this building Andrey Burov was trained at VKhUTEMAS in the studio of Alexander Vesnin and was a member of the Society of Modern Architects (OSA). The architect accompanied the famous European architect Le Corbusier as an interpreter during his three visits to the USSR.
In the design of the house we see, the authors moved away from collective life to private life. That is, from houses-communities and communal to private apartments.
If we look carefully at the facade of the house, we will notice that the plant elements are not only decoration, but also part of the blocks from which this building is built. The house was built in 1939-1940 and significantly influenced the development of panel construction in Moscow. He became one of the pioneers of block construction in the USSR.
The height of the blocks from which the house was built in Leningradka is about one meter, the width is 50 cm and the length ranges from 100 to 320 cm. Such blocks were made in the factory and painted under diamond rust with a special solution, where the embossed surface of a large block with a pattern or color was divided into small squares. Then they were raised and “collected” a building from them.
What blocks can be seen on the facade of the building:
- coated with gray marble,
- perforated mesh block according to the sketches of Vladimir Favorsky in Art Deco style,
- floor blocks with strips of sheets.
The windows on the main facades look like balconies, but without a platform – the so-called French balconies. Inside, the house is crossed by wide stairs with spacious stairs.
The open house became one of the last steps towards the construction of panels in the USSR. Blocks of the largest possible size were used for its construction. Engineers and architects had to turn to lighter and more compact blocks to begin building massive panels. But the plans were interrupted by the war. In a similar method of construction, only more simplified, our country returned much later.
Text prepared in collaboration with Victoria Frolkova.
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