We continue to publish material on the culture and traditions of the peoples of the project “Peoples of the Samara Region” in the context of the Year of Cultural Heritage of the Peoples of Russia. Today we will talk about the Germans.
Self-name – Deutsche
ETHNOGENESIS AND POPULATION HISTORY OF SAMARA REGION
The starting point for the mass appearance of the Germans in Russia, incl. And in the Samara Territory were the decrees of Catherine II of 1762 and 1763. Preferential conditions for resettlement led to a strong colonization of the southern suburbs of Russia, including. and the Volga region. The Germans came mainly from Saxony, Westphalia, Bavaria, Swabia and the Palatinate.
At the end of the 18th century, 25,000 Germans from Württemberg, Baden, Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony and Switzerland moved to the province of Samara. They founded 36 colonies.
The second wave of immigrants in the early 19th century amounted to 43 thousand people. They settled in the southern regions of Nikolaevsky and Novokuznetsk in the province of Samara. At the end of the 80’s, the German population here amounted to 180 thousand people and in 1910 it was already 300 thousand people.
The smallest was the third wave of immigrants in the early 1950s – about three thousand people. The Mennonite Germans arrived from East Prussia and settled in the Aleksandrtal volost of the Samara region (now the village of Nadezhdino, in the Koshkinsky region).
The decree of the USSR government of August 28, 1941 instantly turned the Russian Germans into traitors, spies, enemies of the Soviet people. More than 400,000 people were forcibly relocated to remote areas of Siberia and Kazakhstan within 24 hours. In 1955, the Bureau of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR decided to delete the German special settlers and release them from administrative supervision, but without the right to return to the places from which they were expelled.
TYPES OF SETTLEMENTS AND HOUSES
Initially, the buildings in the German colonies were wooden, covered with planks. Later, with the development of brick factories, houses were built of red brick, the roofs were covered with tiles or iron. The interior layout of the houses was studied to the smallest detail. The hearth was often used as a smokehouse. A huge basement and an attic on the second floor under a steep roof were a must.
TRADITIONAL ECONOMY AND SECTORS
The settlers were mainly engaged in the production of grain, although an important place was given to animal husbandry. Pigs and cows were kept in almost every yard. The milk was sold in dairies. Each German house had its own divider. The oil was sold in the market of Koshki village.
Almost all the colonies were engaged in gardening. Mainly apple orchards were raised.
Many settlers were engaged in handicrafts – shoemakers, carpenters. Women – spun, knitted woolen things, embroidered, woven from straw.
The food is dominated by potatoes and various dishes from them, flour products (noodles, pasta, etc.), dairy and meat dishes are more common among Swabians and Bavarians, although sausages and Sausages are considered a common German food. The most common drink is beer. From the non-alcoholic drinks they prefer coffee with cream, tea, water shelzer. Festive food – pork head (or pork) with sauerkraut stew, goose, carp.
HOLIDAYS AND RITUALS
The Germans Samaras trembled with the customs of their ancestral homeland, but at the same time brought with them the customs of their new homeland – Russia.
Celebrating Easter – Ostern has its roots in the pagan era, when this holiday marked the end of winter, the awakening of a new life. The day of the celebration of spring was the feast of the Trinity – Pfingsten. The Day of John the Baptist followed. Since then, the grass and the preparation of the land “for fallow” began. No less interesting is the Erntedankftst – the autumn Thanksgiving harvest. The whole village gathers together: they sanctify the fruits, they organize a collective feast. The main winter holidays are Christmas. It is preceded by a four-week fast – Advent.
Individual representatives of the Russian Germans (for example, governors – Shel, Fonvizin, Everlakov, Governor Grot, industrialists and merchants – von Vakano, Kenitzer, Benke, Metzler, brothers Klodt, Christenzen, architects Werner, Meisner) left a remarkable story. Samara province.