The Kazakhstan Red Paper recalls the consequences of the country’s rapidly growing natural resources. Man violates the ecosystems that have been created for centuries. As a result, many species of fauna have already become extinct and the animals of the Kazakhstan Red Book require protection. Recently, new representatives were added to it.
Red Book of the Republic of Kazakhstan: Caspian seals
The list of rare and protected animals in the country is reviewed every 10 years. The last time it was approved in 2006 by a special government decree. But the Kazakhstan Red Book has changed again: endangered animals have been added to its list.
In November 2020, by decree of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Caspian seal or Caspian seal was included in the Red Book. This is the only marine mammal in the Caspian Sea, as well as the smallest seal in the world. Unlike large relatives, it grows only up to 1.5 m and weighs no more than 60 kg.
These animals are gray-brown in color, spots appear in adults. It takes 4-5 years to grow up. They reproduce every 2-3 years, usually one baby is born, rarely two. Caspian seals feed on fish, crustaceans and can dive for food up to 80 meters deep.
In good conditions, these seals live up to 50 years. During the melting and resting period, they are found in herds on sandy shores, for the winter they move to the northern part of the sea, they live in ice accumulations.
The following reasons influenced the decrease of the population:
- Water pollution from oil extraction.
- For the same reason, their habitats have been reduced.
- Industrial trapping, still allowed in neighboring countries, as well as poaching.
Scientists know that at the beginning of the 20th century there were about 1 million seals in the Caspian Sea. The mission in 2019 collected data for only 66 thousand. A center has been set up in Aktau to study and rehabilitate these rare animals. Workers find sick, wounded seals, treat them and leave them at sea.
The fact of being registered in the Red Book put these animals under state protection. Now for their murder he faces a large fine and other penalties.
The animals in the Kazakhstan Red Book were replaced by this rarest representative of the cat family very recently – on April 5, 2021, by special government decree. By the same token, Przewalski’s horse and tiger were included in the list.
The population of these leopards in the world does not exceed 1,300 people. They have lived in West Asia for a long time. In Kazakhstan, their presence was discovered very recently – three years ago, camera traps recorded the animals.
After that, a special mission confirmed that the Persian leopard appeared in Kazakhstan. Their number is still unknown. These young animals are supposed to have been forced to leave their lands by the elderly. They moved from Turkmenistan to the Mangistau region, ending up in the desert zone of the Ustyurt Reserve, where conditions are returning to normal.
The Persian leopard is one of the largest predators in the family. The body length reaches 126–170 cm, while it weighs from 25 to 50 kg. The color is light, the fur background is pale, light gray. Brown spotted pattern.
They live in forests, shrubs, subalpine meadows, usually choose places near rock outcrops and rocks. The diet for the predator is medium-sized ungulates, wild boars and small animals – hares, foxes, jackals, and birds.
New animals from the Red Book: Przewalski’s horse
The Red Book has been supplemented by a subspecies of wild horse – Przewalski’s horse. The animal got its name from the famous traveler who described it in the 19th century.
Once upon a time, huge herds of wild horses roamed pastures in China, Mongolia, and western Kazakhstan. He is now the rarest member of the family. In the last century, many people were caught, which made it possible to keep the species on the planet, albeit in captivity.
Przewalski’s horse has a dense, massive body, a large head on a strong neck, short legs:
- His body length is about 2 meters.
- Height at the withers – up to 1.5 m.
- Weight – up to 350 kg.
The color of the horse is sandy-brown, and the abdomen and snout are lighter and the legs, the short stiff mane and tail are almost black.
In Kazakhstan, horses were exterminated in the 1960s. Efforts are being made to rehabilitate the population. In 2003, eight breeding animals were transferred from the Munich Zoo. There are now 13 of them in Altyn-Emel National Park.
Efforts to restore nearly lost animals have allowed scientists to conclude that the species is on the verge of extinction, and the prospects for life on the planet are not lost.
This is a unique case: the Red Book has been renewed with a tiger, while the animals themselves have not yet been imported into the country. The most beautiful feline predator has been considered extinct since the 1940s. This has been influenced by deforestation, climate change, industrial construction, poaching and other factors.
The Amur tiger is a genetically identical relative of the Turan tiger. Kazakh scientists decided to take advantage of this. The goal is to create an ecosystem necessary for tigers in Kazakhstan and then colonize these animals.
The Ministry of Ecology of the Republic of Kazakhstan has developed a program for the rehabilitation of the tiger population for 15 years. It is financially supported by the World Wildlife Fund.
In the area of Lake Balkhash and in the delta of the river Ili, habitat conditions are created for tigers. First, it is necessary to form a food base for them. For this, a sufficient number of Bukhara deer, roe deer, wild boar are bred in an area of more than 10 thousand km².
Only when the local ecosystem is restored will tigers from Siberia and the Primorsky Krai come here. This is expected around 2025. There is hope that the tigers will be found in their normal conditions, so it is possible to restore the population of the species to the place of their long-term habitat.
The Kazakhstan Red Book is expanding. The animals in it are already represented by 133 species of vertebrates. Hunting them is now a criminal offense and the fact that animals are reported as rare or endangered draws the public’s attention to these problems.
Original article: https://www.nur.kz/family/school/1757522-krasnaa-kniga-kazahstana-zivotnye-i-pticy/