Zhaiyk Press – Peculiarities of student nutrition

The school curriculum requires high mental activity from the children. A child who learns not only does hard work, but also grows and develops at the same time. Therefore, he must receive adequate nutrition.

Food is the only source from which the child receives building materials and energy. The normal activity of the brain and body depends on the quality of the food consumed. It is good for parents to know that the “difficult” nature of the child is often the result of poor nutrition. The school period, which covers the age from 6 to 18 years, is characterized by intensive growth processes, increased skeleton of bones and muscles, a complex restructuring of metabolism, endocrine system and brain. There is an increase in the flow of information, complication of school programs, combination of courses with additional loads (optional departments, circles, teachers). All this imposes increased demands on the student’s body, which are associated with high energy consumption and significant consumption of nutrients. Eating disorders at this age can lead to serious disturbances in the vital activity of the body, including disorders of the digestive system, cardiovascular system and higher nervous activity. Therefore, the provision of rational nutrition to students is one of the basic conditions for their proper harmonious development. Children and adolescents are divided into two age groups: the youngest – from 6 to 11 years, the older – from 11 to 18 years. Children 6-11 years old are recommended five meals a day, older four meals a day. It is important to adhere to meal times. It is necessary to instill in students a conscious attitude towards their health, which can be seriously affected by non-systematic and irrational diet. Disorders of the regime, non-observance of regular eating hours, lengthening or shortening of the intervals between meals lead to disorders of the digestive organs. In this case, there is insufficient production of digestive juices, food is poorly digested, remains in the gastrointestinal tract for a long time and irritates the mucous membranes of the stomach and intestines. All this contributes to the development of a number of chronic diseases. It is especially important for a growing organism to include a sufficient amount of protein in food. Animal proteins should be at least 50-60% of the total. With its deficiency in children, there is a violation of the function of the cerebral cortex, the ability to work decreases, overwork occurs easily and academic performance deteriorates. Foods rich in protein: eggs, meat, fish, nuts, oatmeal, buckwheat. Dairy and sour milk are required daily on the menu. If there is little protein in the food, the immune system suffers (endless colds), the skin becomes dry and flabby, the hair is dull and the nails are brittle. Protein is also essential for liver function, the absorption of many vitamins and the burning of fat stores, which should not exceed 25% of the daily calories in food. Fatty meats, milk, fried foods and sweets contain harmful fats, while seafood and vegetable oils contain healthy fats. The food is best steamed, boiled or boiled. Vegetables are a source of vitamins and minerals. Vegetables and fruits should be included in every meal, ie five times a day and be sure to eat it before meals. Nuts (apricots, peaches, cherries) contain a lot of glucose and sucrose, fruits (pears and apples) contain fructose. Dietary fiber is represented in the fruit by pectins, which normalize the intestinal microflora, suppressing putrefaction processes and removing toxic substances. The child should eat a variety of foods. Every day you need to eat meat, butter, milk, bread, cereals, fresh vegetables and fruits. A number of products: fish, eggs, legumes, sour cream, cottage cheese and other dairy products, cheese, eat 2-3 times a week. Schools compile a promising seasonal (summer – autumn, winter – spring) rational, balanced two-week menu. During the development of the menu, the length of stay of students and pupils, their age category, are taken into account, they provide foods enriched with a complex of vitamins and minerals.

The advantage of a two-week menu: variety in the diet due to the increase in the range of dishes. ensuring a uniform distribution of food calorie intake during the week; taking into account the compatibility of products and the compatibility of side dishes with side dishes. limiting the use of tea not only as a beverage that children consume excessively at home, but also as a factor that reduces the absorption of iron and therefore increases the risk of anemia. limiting the amount of bread in order to maximize the use of the product and reduce the proportion of calories received from it; Ensuring scheduled delivery and proper distribution of products.

For students of the first shift in general educational institutions is provided one or two meals a day, second breakfast or second breakfast and lunch, for students of the second shift – afternoon snack, for extended day groups – second breakfast, lunch and an afternoon snack. With a 24-hour stay for children, at least five meals a day are provided. The intervals between meals should not exceed 3.5-4 hours. It is allowed to replace food products, the mass of a portion of dishes in grams, depending on age.

The menu does not allow the repetition of the same dishes or gastronomic products on the same day and the next two or three calendar days. A menu approved by the manager is posted daily in the dining room. The school management prepares a meal plan for the students, takes care of service in the canteens and appoints those responsible for the accounting for the nutrition of the primary school students, checks the status of the documentation of the catering department, as well as the availability of medical books for catering workers.

At the beginning of the school year, a marriage committee is set up, consisting of the school principal, a doctor, a production manager and a representative of the parent committee, a social worker, who periodically evaluates the quality of the food. Every day, a doctor or a person in charge conducts an organoleptic evaluation of the quality of prepared meals by registering in the register of organoleptic evaluation of the quality of dishes and culinary products in accordance with Form 3 of Annex 9 of the Health Rules. The organoleptic indicators of the products include: appearance (color, shape, transparency, gloss, cross-sectional appearance, etc.), texture, smell, taste. Periodically (suddenly) the committee checks the correct placement of the products and the performance of the prepared meals. It monitors the health of the employees in the catering unit on a daily basis by entering data in the diary of the results of the control of the catering unit. Every day in the catering unit, the cook must leave a daily sample of finished products according to the actual menu. The selected daily samples are stored for at least 48 hours in a specially designated place in the refrigerator at a temperature of +2 – 6 ° C.0C. A drinking water regime should also be organized on the premises, for the organization of which the person in charge of the facility appoints a responsible person, free access of students and pupils to drinking water is provided throughout their stay in the facilities.

Zauresh Bizhanova,
doctor of organized childhood city polyclinic No. 3

In the area, 100% of students in grades 1-4 and some categories of students are provided with free hot meals – there are 53,025 children. The cost of meals for some categories of students is 485 tenge, for students in grades 1-4 – 380 tenge.

According to the Action Plan of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan to provide high quality balanced nutrition for schoolchildren for the period 2021-2023, the WKO Department of Education has approved a single menu.

Weekly menu

No.

Name of the dish

1-4 class

5-11 class

1 day

a

Porridge with butter

200

250

2

Baton with butter

25/5

35/5

3

Dried fruit compote

200

200

4

apple

100

100

2 days

a

Cabbage salad

fifty

60

2

Pilaf with chicken

200

250

3

Rye bread

25

35

4

cocoa with milk

200

200

3 day

a

Vitamin salad

fifty

60

2

Homemade noodle soup

200

250

3

Rye bread

25

35

4

Dried fruit compote

200

200

Day 4

a

Fish balls with sauce

50/10

80/10

2

Mashed potatoes

150

200

3

Rye bread

25

35

4

Tea with sugar

200

200

Day 5

a

Pasta with meat

200

250

2

Rye bread

25

35

3

Fruit berry jelly

200

200

4

apple

100

100

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