Hypertension is the most common disease of the cardiovascular system. According to the WHO, as of 2021, there were 1.28 billion adults aged 30 to 79 in the world with this diagnosis. At the same time, almost 46% of adult hypertensive patients are not even aware of the presence of the disease.
Hypertension is a condition in which a person’s blood pressure is too high. Usually, the diagnosis is made when the pressure values for a period of time are equal to or greater than 140 mm Hg. Art.
World Hypertension Day is celebrated every year on the second Saturday in May. According to experts, an important aspect in the treatment of the disease is proper nutrition. The authors of Megatyumen.ru spoke with a nutritionist, endocrinologist Tyumen and compiled a list of recommendations for hypertensive and hypotensive patients.
How to prevent the development of hypertension
a photograph: Drazen Zigic/ freepik
Risk factors for hypertension include unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, bad habits (alcohol, smoking) and being overweight.
Speaking of disease prevention, experts advise first of all to pay attention to your dish – diet. According to endocrinologist, nutritionist Tyumen, doctor of medical sciences Elena Dorodeva, nutrition and nutritional therapy is a constant preventive and therapeutic factor. Because the products we use contain important ingredients that are involved in metabolism.
– With diet we form a health profile. Similarly, diet affects the diseases that occur in a person. This applies to all instruments and systems, – notes the expert.
Why is it important for hypertensive patients to follow a diet?
- Promotes weight loss.
- Improves the effectiveness of drugs.
- Provides the body with a balanced set of useful ingredients that affect metabolism.
- Helps maintain a healthy body mass index.
According to a dietitian, some medications used to treat high blood pressure become less effective if a person’s diet is too high in salty foods. Excessive consumption of fats and carbohydrates also leads to obesity, which, in turn, is associated with increased stress.
Which foods should be avoided with hypertension
photo: 8photo / freepik
First of all, it is extremely important to control the amount of salty foods consumed. These include all pickles, preserves, industrial smoked products, sausages, hot dogs and cheeses. All this hypertension should be consumed in small quantities, and in other cases it is better to deny it completely.
The main thing a hypertensive person should do to reduce the negative effects of diet is to limit the amount of salty foods.
According to the expert, it is important to control the amount of salt in your normal food intake. Many people are accustomed to adding salt to an already prepared dish, just before eating it, and this, according to nutritionists, is absolutely impossible to do. Only the addition of salt, which is included in the recipe, is allowed.
The optimal amount of salt in the daily diet of hypertensive patients does not exceed 4-5 grams (an incomplete teaspoon).
Being overweight also affects the onset and progression of the disease. Therefore, the proportion of fatty foods and sweets that retain fluids in the body should be significantly reduced in the diet.
What should be in a hypertension plate
photo: holiak / freepik
“We need vegetables,” says nutritionist Elena Feliksovna. – At least 400-500 grams of vegetables and fruits per day. And we are talking about sugar-free and non-starchy products. That is, bananas, grapes and potatoes should be limited. Make sure you have cereals and grains, fish and other low fat foods – lean meats, poultry.
Sample menu for hypertension
- First breakfast: boiled egg, oatmeal, tea.
- Second breakfast: baked apples.
- Lunch: vegetable soup with vegetable oil (1/2 portion). Boiled meat with carrot puree, dried fruit compote.
- Afternoon snack: rose broth.
- Dinner: pudding with cottage cheese (1/2 portion), boiled fish with vegetable stew, tea.
- At night: kefir.
The preparation of dishes without salt is provided, the use of 120 g of dark, bran bread is allowed.
Do hypotensive patients need a diet?
a photograph: master1305/ freepik
According to a dietitian, there are no specific dietary recommendations for people with low blood pressure.
Hypotension is a condition that can be caused by many reasons. First of all, there are diseases that contribute to the appearance of low blood pressure, for example, those related to the endocrine system, kidneys, etc. Therefore, people who are worried about low blood pressure, should first of all consult a specialist to rule out the presence of these diseases, the nutritionist recommends.
Often, people with phytovascular or neurocirculatory dystonia pathology have the problem of low blood pressure. They manifest functionally, most often in young people prone to stress, overwork, vitamin and mineral deficiencies or suffering from low weight.
Prevention of hypotension
a photograph: Atlascompany/ freepik
The diet of a person prone to hypotension should be complete and balanced. There should be fruits and vegetables, citrus fruits, red peppers, cereals are preferred. Hypotensive patients should avoid very restrictive diets, ie various rigid diets.
Some experts recommend adding a little salt to hypotensive foods. Sometimes these patients develop a craving for salty foods on their own.
Hypotension is common in young adults with an inadequate body mass index. According to the expert, you can calculate the correct and healthy weight yourself. To do this, you need to divide body weight in kilograms by height in square meters. Less than 18.5 is lack of body weight. From 18.5 to 25 – normal weight. Between 25 and 30 are overweight and over 30 are obese.
“If you belong to the category of insufficiency, you should adjust your diet and try to enter the normal range,” advises the expert. Indicators are based on a large number of different studies around the world, which have shown that these data are closely related to the risk and development of diseases.
It is important for hypotensive patients to maintain a proper and rational diet, as well as a work and rest regime. We can not always control stressful situations, but we can control our diet.
Even if you start controlling your diet at an advanced age, it will still have a very beneficial effect on metabolism and the risk of disease.