A big problem is the recovery of lands that have been disturbed by human hands in our country.
Enormous damage to the environment is caused by coal mining companies engaged in open pit mining. By storing supernatants in large cities and small towns, they turn landfills into a source of emission not only of dust, but also of various gases produced during endogenous fires. In the meantime, such companies are in no hurry to re-cultivate man-made sources of air pollution. And if they do, it’s ineffective. One of the reasons is the lack of established technologies.
It seems that scientists at the Kuzbass Botanical Garden are close to creating nature-like technologies for restoration, which should ensure the environmental effectiveness of restoration work. “The purpose of such technologies is to create plant communities in landfills that, in terms of their properties and internal structure, are as close as possible to the original state of the area’s natural ecosystems,” said Vladimir Ivanovich Ufimtsev, head of the rehabilitation laboratory. and biomonitoring of the Federal Research Center of UChKh SB RAS, Candidate of Biological Sciences Vladimir Ivanovich Ufimtsev. – On the other hand, we know that man-made landfill escape, which becomes the basis of newly established ecosystems, differs greatly from the properties of zonal soils. Therefore, for example, forest ecosystems should be multi-component, stable and capable of self-reproduction, and when restoring herbaceous vegetation, attention should be paid to increasing biodiversity and soil-ecological impact.
Scientists at the Kuzbass Botanical Garden are simultaneously working on different biological recovery methods, focusing on different ecological and geographical areas of the Kuzbass.
They say that GOST R 57446-2017 gave a new impetus to the restoration of disturbed soils, which sets out one of the main conditions for the restoration of disturbed soils – the preservation and restoration of biodiversity. According to Natalya Aleksandrovna Makeeva, a researcher at the FRC UUH SB RAS Rehabilitation and Biomedical Laboratory, forest plantations in landfills should be designed in such a way that the structure of the forest cluster does not interfere with the development of living vegetation. , fungi, and so on, species of trees should also be used that provide a food base for representatives of the fauna that migrate to the landfills. “The key point is that during the restoration, it is necessary to make the most of the potential of the native species of trees and shrubs, so that the technological forest ecosystems are organically adapted to the natural landscape. That is, some species of trees that are generally used successfully in urban landscaping, but are not typical of the natural landscapes of our natural zone, are still not suitable for landfill rehabilitation “, Natalia Alexandrovna is sure.
According to the newspaper “Science in Siberia” – publication of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences – in 2021, the Kuzbass Botanical Garden of FRC UUH SB RAS, with the support of JSC “MC” Kuzbassrazrezugol “, on the landfill” coal Kedrovsky »created a pilot test site for restoration technologies with special reference plots where all the conditions for planting trees are met. , there are also experimental works for the study of theoretical developments in practice.
Kuzbass scientists have concluded that in order to restore the natural atmosphere in the territory of open pit coal mining, it is necessary to plant forests annually on an area of at least nine thousand hectares. At the same time, Vladimir Ivanovich Ufimtsev notes that in order to solve carbon problems, it is very promising to create multi-level communities that look like nature in landfills with a significant percentage of first and second size conifers. Such a combination of many species of trees in the same area will ensure the formation of different ecological niches and, ultimately, the restoration of biodiversity.