A round table meeting was held at the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management of the WTO, dedicated to the main environmental problems of our region, where the issue of conservation of biological and local diversity of the WTO and its role in ecosystem sustainability was also raised.
The protagonists of the event were the Ecological and Geographical Society of West Kazakhstan together with scientists from the ZKU named M. Utemisov.
Opening the work of the round table, the President of EGO WKO Darkhan Sariev noted the importance of preserving forests as a protective framework of the city.
All floodplain forests should be given the status of specially protected natural areas, as the preservation of forests is still an extremely important task for us. The previous generations, the grandparents, the grandfathers, the fathers left us a rich legacy, and what we see now, almost everything has been cut down, the forests are drying up, burning. And this is our oxygen. As for the urban forests that grow in the city, all the areas where the forest is still preserved must be transferred to the state forest fund. This is the only way to protect forests, since under the current state of environmental legislation, only the state treasury is protected by law. And as the sad statistics show, the lands of the city are very easily transferred to private ownership, transferred for business and in the end the trees are cut down. How many plots of land in the floodplain of the Chagan River were used for the construction of private estates. A businessman also takes a plot of land in a water protection zone, even a lane, and calmly builds a business object there. And where to rest for ordinary people? Therefore, the forest areas within the city must be registered in the state forest fund. A strict inventory of forests should also be made. And places like the Perevolochnaya and Khanskaya groves should become protected areas.
D. Sariev was supported by a postgraduate student of biological sciences, postgraduate student, zoologist, researcher at the University of West Kazakhstan. M. Utemisova Mikhail Shpigelman, who noted that forests occupy only 10% of the territory in the Republic, the same situation is in the region of West Kazakhstan and this, according to the scientist, is very small.
– Any floodplain forest, where there is a river floodplain, should be a specially protected area. We do not have a single national park, inland eco-tourism is not developing. Protected areas can generate income, it is necessary to develop ecotourism there, this direction is now very developed around the world and is in great demand. If we take the experience of other countries, then volunteers are attracted to work in protected areas. Much is being said now about the importance of ecological and patriotic education, but our children do not even know how many species of birds there are in our area. Often, the teachers themselves do not have such information fully, as they do not study the composition of the species. And this is important, because when children study their nature, they will have a love for their homeland, a responsibility for the preservation of nature. For example, who knows that in Kazakhstan there are only 500 species of birds, 320 of which live in the region of West Kazakhstan, ie we have almost 70% of the total alert composition of birds. All these species must be protected, their habitat preserved. We have a very rich variety of species in both animals and plants. And that is what children should be told. Now, in the context of environmental education in the framework of the Eco Batys project, we are holding open classes and we have sufficient material for conducting a photo exhibition in educational institutions.
The scientist also pointed out that due to the uncontrolled economic activity of agricultural holdings in the territory of the Bitik reservoir, the population of the Red Book spoon and Dalmatian pelicans disappeared there, now these rarest bird representatives have seen only one bird in a lake. . Serious damage due to economic activity continues to be caused to swan and goose populations. Mikhail Shpigelman also said that during the last scientific mission they discovered a large number of fishing nets in the tanks of the area. In addition, according to the scientist, there are decomposing cattle carcasses in many tanks, namely, two cow carcasses floating in the Taipak canal, 50 meters from the bridge.
The colleague was supported by the candidate of geographical sciences, professor, acting vice-chancellor for scientific work and international relations of the University of West Kazakhstan. M. Utemisova Kazhmurat Akhmedenov, who focused the public attention on reducing the number of WKO flora and fauna species. According to the scientist, urgent measures should be taken to rescue endangered species and the key step in this direction should be the creation of the Red Book of the region.
– The creation of protected areas is only the first legally justified step towards the conservation of the species’ habitats and then problems arise for the full operation of the protected area. An important role in the conservation of biodiversity is played by the educational work with the local population, the farms and their involvement in the conservation of the ecosystem. Biodiversity conservation is one of the global problems of natural environment protection. In June 1992, at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, the Convention on Biological Diversity was opened for signature. The Republic of Kazakhstan has ratified this Convention. Paragraph 5 of this decree provides for the development and adoption of laws and regulations relating to the protection, conservation of the number and habitat of endangered species and populations of animals and plants.
The protection of rare and endangered species is one of the main problems of biodiversity conservation. Recognized worldwide and an effective mechanism for their conservation are the Red Books, whose history has been established for more than 70 years by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). Currently, in addition to the IUCN Red List, most countries in the world have created national Red Books, including the Republic of Kazakhstan. For large states with different natural conditions and rich biodiversity, it is important to create regional lists of rare and endangered species. In our opinion, this problem is long overdue in the Republic of Kazakhstan, the ninth largest state in the world. In this respect, the region of West Kazakhstan, due to its geographical location, the richest and most diverse flora and fauna and its extremely natural scientific potential, could function as one of the pioneering regions in the creation of regional Red Books in the Republic of Kazakhstan. It should be noted that the experience of creating regional red data books is widely used around the world, for example, in the neighboring Russian Federation; such books exist in many fields. Work in this direction has also begun in Kazakhstan. In 2006, under the editorship of AMMeldebekov, the “Red Book of the Almaty Region. “This edition is the first experience of collecting the regional Red Book in Kazakhstan, – noted K. Akhmedenov.
It is worth noting that university scientists have been raising this issue for several years. At the end of his speech, Kazhmurat Akhemedenov proposed to the head of the Department of Education and Science a plan for joint work with pupils and students, drawn up by university scientists as part of the work on environmental education.
Aldiyar Khalelov, Head of the WKO Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management, supported the idea of working with the forestry company on environmental education for the younger generation, as well as the proposal to create a regional Red Book.
– All these are our omissions, we do not instill in children a culture of cleanliness, planting trees, flowers, respect for nature. It is worth noting the eco-activists for the organization of the campaign “Collection of seeds for the future forest”, as well as the participation of the new generation in this event. This is an important help for us, – noted A. Khalelov.
He also touched on the issues of low forestry supply. According to the head of the environment department, foresters still have the lowest wages, the supply of equipment is less than 70%, the number of fires increases, where a huge amount of forest dies. A. Khalelov also focused on the low level of the Ural River.
– In 2019, there was the smallest peak of 2.40 m of the river rise, this year it is 3.97 m, these are very low numbers. If we compare the 30-year cycle of the river rise, then before the Urals they climbed over 8 meters eight times, after 1958 only once, since the upper flow is regulated. This issue will be discussed at the meeting of the Presidents of the two countries, – said A. Khalelov.
Andrei Starichenkov, regional representative of the NGO “Zhan Botanov”, raised the issue of urban greenery. In particular, the public figure criticized the inaction of the city services.
– The head of our public association gave free pine saplings, about 1000 pieces, for the landscaping of the city. But we were told that akimat can only provide landing sites and we have to offer landing and further care on our own. What is this approach? As a result, we distributed saplings to organizations and individuals who undertook to cultivate them, while we also organized planting in the city park. “Thanks to the police department, they planted most of the seedlings in their territory,” said A. Starichenkov.
Mikhail Shpigelman said a company offered to help preserve the steppe’s eagle population, which is ready to build artificial nests for large birds of prey.
“70% of the population of Steppe Eagles lives in our area, unfortunately, in recent years the number of this species is steadily declining, birds can not breed, because they have nowhere to nest, they are forced to nest on the ground and sites their nest are destroyed by animals, predators. Eagles also build nests on power poles, die on their own and cause power cord accidents. “The experience of other countries in arranging artificial spawning sites has given positive results and such spawning grounds will be established in the Kaztalovsky area, which will make it possible to preserve this unique species,” said M. Shpigelian.
Scientists at the university provided the Department of Nature Management with the book “Birds of Prey of the West Kazakhstan Region”, which they wrote, which will be an excellent methodological guide for the employees of the Department of Environment. Information leaflets on biodiversity and conservation problems in the West Kazakhstan region were also distributed to all attendees.
Concluding the work of the round table, Darkhan Sariev noted that it is necessary to consolidate the efforts of the public, scientists and government environmental authorities in the field of biodiversity conservation in our region. The President of the NGO “EGO WKO” thanked the representatives of the environmental police of DP WKO for the immediate response to the requests of the environmental NGO. As a result of the round table, a joint work plan and a series of events were approved, in particular training seminars with local forest officials.
Photo by the author