A proven form of nature care is the timely replenishment of its depleted stocks. People considered it fruitful, for example, to plow the same field not every year, but every second year, to give the earth rest and time to recover. In order for the earth to maintain its fertility, it was fertilized with manure, mulch, ash, mud and plowed several times. When preparing firewood for the winter, only dried or wind trees were cut down in the forest. Rods for weaving baskets and fences were cut only in dense thickets. They did not cut wood near springs and natural reservoirs. To prevent the springs from drying out, trees were planted above them. Protection of natural monuments. They took good care of the pastures.
People were very sparing of the plant world. Great care for forests, gardens and fields was shown at harvest time. The use of gardens and fields with cereals was strictly regulated. Grazing in the gardens was strictly forbidden. For a long time, the mountain workers strictly observed the days of the beginning of the harvest of grain, the gathering of fruits, the opening of pastures, etc. By the way, popular agricultural and livestock holidays are directly related to this. Until the fruit was fully ripe, no one could climb in the garden or pick the fruit. Ignoring such an order was identified with theft, the desire to harm nature.
The experience of the people gives us really human, painless for the trees methods of harvesting, collecting leaves for animal feed. For example, nuts from a large tree should be cut with a long pole. This not only facilitates the collection of nuts, but also frees the tree from unnecessary branches. To collect the mulberry, you need to shake the tree. However, this way it is impossible to collect apples, cherries, plums, pears: this can damage both the fruits themselves and the trees. As for mistletoe, its healing properties for the treatment of certain diseases and for increasing the thickness of animals in winter have been known to humans for a long time, so they collected it very carefully: they cut it with a special knife attached. the tip of a long pole.
The experience of the older generations of Dagestanis has numerous forms, methods and techniques to show genuine interest in the environment,
for flora and fauna
To preserve the beauty of their indigenous nature, thanks to the trees that were planted and cultivated by a caring worker, the Dagestanis resorted to various methods. For example, according to old memories from my ancestral village of Shikhikent, in the Suleiman-Stalsky area, Gadzhi’s grandfather, whose well-groomed hands had grown into a huge orchard, still bears the name “Gyazhid bag” ( Gadzhi’s garden), protected his garden with the generosity of his soul. Every Sunday afternoon, near the garden next to the street leading to the bazaar, he threw plenty of apples, pears, plums and other fruits. “Help yourself people,” he said, “this is possible with diligence, with a masterful attitude towards the earth and everything that nature has created.” This approach of the old worker in her own way discreetly and impressively influenced the conscience of the people, protected them from the desire to go back to the garden, to tread grass, to pick hasty fruit. The method of the wise grandfather Gaji was a living machine of high moral emotions. To this day his name is mentioned in the village with great gratitude for the kind attitude towards nature and people.
The connection of a young person with the native nature was “designed” by people literally from the very first days of the birth of a baby. It was with such a noble purpose that the people of Dagestan called the newborns the names of the wonderful flowers of the mountain: violet (Benevsha), rose (Kizilgyul, Khunkultuti). radiant celestial bodies: star (Zuhra, Yulduz), moon (Varz). peaceful animals and birds: fallow (Maral, Zheyran), nightingale (Bilbil), swallow (Chitu). precious metals and stones: coral (Mirvari, Zhavgarat, Merzhan), diamond (Almas), emerald (Zumrud), gold (Mesedu, Kizil), turquoise (Firazat, Periza) and others. Such names, having become inseparable companions of people for life, from a young age reinforced in the mind of a person the true feelings of true love for the flora and fauna.
The importance of nature in the physical and moral development of a person was instilled in the children, emphasizing with affection their positive qualities with comparative phrases such as: “you have a voice like a nightingale”, “it has teeth like pearls (mother of pearl)”, “lips like strawberries (cherry) “,” eyes as sharp as an eagle “,” black braids like agate “,” sweet tongue like honeycombs “,” slender figure like fallow “, etc. Satisfying children’s tales, songs, rhymes and other works of oral folk art in similar turns, wise folk educators instilled in people a love for the surrounding nature.
Quite often, to bring children closer to nature, people used various prohibitions and warnings: “Do not touch the frog”, “Do not destroy the anthill, otherwise it will rain”. This was not so much a belief in omens, but the desire of the older the younger to treat the beneficial insects and animals with care and nobility.
From an early age, children said they had to be kind, to love people, domestic and kind wildlife and nature. This was facilitated by the care of children for young animals: lambs, goats, calves, chickens, ducklings, geese, turkeys. for animals, yard dogs, food preparation, feeding, watering, cleaning. care for young seedlings: garter, loosening the soil around the stem, watering. cleaning springs, streams, etc.
An example for children has always been the attitude of adults in nature. When a dancer interrupted the haircut, picked up a bird’s nest that was accidentally overturned with a scythe, put in fallen chicks or eggs, and attached the nest to the nearest bush, this became a clear lesson in caring for nature.
The experience of the older generations of Dagestan has numerous forms, methods and techniques not only of expression, but also of true concern for the environment, the flora and fauna.
It is the duty of teachers, educators, parents and the whole community to come from the centuries-old progressive popular experience in the formation of love and skills for the protection of indigenous nature in the modern environmental conditions of the new generation. So you can develop a high sense of beauty in the younger generation, form a careful attitude towards the public sector, teach you to understand correctly and appreciate the beauty and richness of your innate nature.