It is known that one of the main components of health is proper nutrition. Throughout life, healthy food grows stronger Our immune system helps maintain good physical condition and also reduces the risk of many diseases (diabetes, oncology, cardiovascular disease, obesity, stomach ulcers, etc.). A balanced diet improves all bodily functions, from physical performance to cognitive brain function.
However, rapid urbanization, the development of processed foods, and rapidly changing lifestyles have led to health-threatening changes in the eating patterns of people around the world. Today, people consume excessive amounts of foods high in calories, fats, free sugars and salt, while at the same time very little fruit, vegetables and other fiber. It is important to remember that food affects all the cells and organs of our body!
Individual needs for nutrients and energy vary significantly depending on gender, age, nature of work, physical activity, physiological state (pregnancy, breastfeeding), the presence of disease, etc. WHO recommendations for healthy eating for infants and children of other age groups are similar to those for adults, but the following are also important:
* during the first 6 months of life, children should exclusively breastfeed.
* Breastfeeding should be continued during the first two years of life and beyond.
* From the age of six months, breast milk should be supplemented with a variety of suitable, safe and nutritious foods.
* Salt and sugar should not be added to complementary foods.
During the first two years of life, optimal nutrition promotes healthy growth and improves cognitive development. It also reduces the risk of being overweight, obese and developing many diseases later in life.
There are also recommendations for the most common dietary goals, the observance of which will allow you to stay healthy and active at any age.
1. Energy intake (calories) should be balanced with its consumption. To prevent unhealthy weight gain, total fat intake should not exceed 30% of total energy intake.
2. Eat a variety! Products of animal and plant origin should complement each other in the diet, as they contain various useful substances. Only with the daily consumption of food from all groups is it possible to get all the necessary nutrients and sufficient energy from food.
3. Follow the right diet. You divide the amount of food during the day (multiplication of meals), its energy value, chemical composition, the total amount of food into separate meals. For healthy people, 4-5 meals a day at intervals of 3-4 hours are recommended. Breakfast should be 25-30% of the daily diet, lunch – 30-35%, dinner – 20-25%. In between meals, you can have snacks (5-15% of total calories): eat fruits, dried fruits, nuts, low-fat dairy products without sugar.
4. Eat bread and pastries, cereals, rice, potatoes, pasta, legumes regularly. It is necessary for more than half of the daily energy to come from this group of products, as they contain low fat, are rich in proteins, minerals (potassium, calcium and magnesium) and vitamins (groups B, C). Various types of bread (wheat, rye, bran, whole grains, whole grains) are a good source of B vitamins, potassium, iron, phosphorus, dietary fiber. They are especially abundant in wholemeal bread.
5. Eat vegetables and fruits daily! WHO nutritionists recommend consuming at least five servings of fruits and vegetables (approximately 400 g) daily. It is this amount of fresh vegetables and fruits that has been shown to reduce the risk of many non-communicable diseases and provide the body with enough fiber.
6. Replace fatty meats and meat products with beans, beans, lentils, fish, poultry or lean meats. Beans, beans, lentils and nuts, as well as meat, poultry, fish (including shellfish, crustaceans, sardines) and eggs are important sources of protein and iron. Legumes are rich sources of iron, which is not absorbed as well as the iron found in meat and fish. A portion of cooked meat can almost completely satisfy the need of an adult man and 50% of a woman for iron. The average consumption of red meat is recommended to be limited to 80-100 grams per day or to be replaced with fish, poultry or meat from wild animals.
7. Eat foods low in salt and sugar. Many people consume too much sodium from salt and not enough potassium. High sodium intake and low potassium intake contribute to high blood pressure, which in turn increases the risk of heart disease and stroke. High salt intake is associated with a high prevalence of hypertension and increased morbidity and mortality from stroke. Therefore, the maximum salt intake, according to the WHO recommendations, should be 5-6 g. the day. Reducing salt intake to recommended levels could help prevent 1.7 million deaths a year. All salt used in the food industry and purchased for domestic consumption must be iodized. When it comes to sugar, a low-sugar diet – no more than 10% of your daily diet – should be preferred. Foods high in sugar are a source of energy, but they contribute to obesity, caries and are not a necessary component of a healthy diet.
8. Cook meals the right way! Healthy food is properly cooked meals. Preferred cooking methods are boiling, steaming and baking (eg in the oven). With due skill and ingenuity, these methods allow you to get delicious finished products without adding too much fat to them. Fans of pancakes can use the grill: classic, in the oven or the grill, which allows you to cook food without using oil.
9. Healthy eating also means fresh food. Always make sure your food is fresh. A significant part of food poisoning is caused by cooking long before consumption, violation of food storage rules, ie at a temperature that allows the accumulation of bacteria, inadequate heat treatment. Remember to remember the need to wash your hands, food raw materials and utensils used in cooking. In addition, kitchen towels should be changed regularly. When buying products, be sure to check if the expiration date has passed.
10. Try to drink more clean water during the day! Water has a beneficial effect on the skin, moisturizes it from within, nourishes it with energy and prevents dryness. In addition, it helps eliminate harmful toxins from the body and is essential for normal digestion. It is considered optimal to drink about 1.5-2 liters of pure non-carbonated water a day. It is not recommended to drink a lot of water at night, otherwise you risk waking up with swelling.
11. Give up bad habits! The negative effect of excessive alcohol consumption on the condition of the brain, liver, heart muscle, blood, intestines, nerves, pancreas and, finally, on the nutritional status has been noted. Alcohol dependence can lead to nutrient deficiencies such as thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, folic acid and vitamin C, zinc and magnesium. If alcohol is allowed, it should be limited to two drinks (10 grams each) per day.
12. If you can not immediately give up unhealthy foods (carbonated beverages, cakes, pies, savory, fried, fast food), then their use should be limited.
The role of proper nutrition can hardly be overestimated, because to some extent depends on the well-being, beauty, strength, and even the good mood of a person. This is the most important element for maintaining and enhancing the health of present and future generations, as well as a necessary condition for achieving active longevity. Take the first step towards a healthy diet – and the result will not be long in coming. Eat right – and stay healthy!
According to the materials of the branch of FBUZ “TsGiE in RO” in Rostov-on-Don
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